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Keystrokes Per Minute - The Women in the Public Service Typing Pool from 1945 til the Present Day

Keystrokes per Minute (KPM) is a project that aims to record  the oral history of women in the New Zealand Public Service Typing Pools from 1945 to the present day. 

The Public Service has for many decades relied entirely on the work of women employed in the typing pool and related jobs. This oral history records their highly skilled work, the way they adapted to changes in technology, and status of their profession since 1945. 

The collection of oral interviews will be captured and published, as a written publication, presented as a podcast series, and we even hope as a documentary!

So to capture this important aspect of the history of women’s work, we need your stories. 

Contact the Project Team via their website at Story Collective NZ

AdmiNZ Submission to the Review of Vocational Education (RoVE)
In 2020, the government implemented reforms of the vocational education sector to create a strong, unified, sustainable vocational education system that is fit for the future of work and delivers the skills that learners, employers and communities need to thrive.

AdmiNZ, as the recognised Peak Body for our profession, has been involved in the changes and provided this submission to the inform the process.

Filling the knowledge gap for administrative professionals undertaking their National Diploma in Business Administration Level 5

Research funded by Ako Aotearoa undertaken by:  Vivienne Kermode AAPNZ (Waiariki Institute of Technology) and Eth Lloyd M.Ed. AAPNZ Life, Fellow, Cert. (Enderby Associates Ltd)

Vivienne and Eth have been working together over the last 4 years to support and assist administrative professionals to gain their Diploma in Business Administration (DBA) L5 while in the workplace. 

For some of these administrative professionals completing their qualification in the workplace with Eth Lloyd also required a way to fill a ‘knowledge gap’ identified during the workplace assessment process. Waiariki Institute of Technology supported the Tutor of their on-line DBA L5 programme, AAPNZ member Vivienne Kermode, to provide single course one-off enrollments for these DBA candidates to fill that knowledge gap through formal new on-line learning. 

This approach was so successful that Vivienne and Eth approached Ako Aotearoa with a proposal for funding to assist them in researching their approach. This research project allowed Vivienne and Eth to provide credible results from that research so other Polytechnics/Institutes of Technology could see how it worked and could perhaps consider the same type of approach. Eth and Vivienne also presented these results at the Polytechnics National Business Administration Forum in Napier in April.

AAPNZ members again participated in this research by responding to the on-line survey, providing a context for Vivienne and Eth’s research and data included in the research report.

If you wish to complete a DBA L5 in the workplace, recognising the skills you already hold but think that you have a gap in your knowledge, or would like to gain a new higher level skill then this integrated approach might be the best way to achieve that goal.  This report might therefore be of interest to you.

Vivienne and Eth’s report is available on the Ako Aoatearoa website.

Administrative professionals in New Zealand: their professional development opportunities and career pathways.
Master's Thesis - Eth Lloyd M.Ed., P.G.Dip Ed, DipBusAdmin, AAPNZ Fellow, Cert. (

This thesis is the first academic research to be conducted solely in New Zealand into administrative professionals. It looks at the perceptions of administrative professionals of their professional development opportunities and career pathways.

In 1995 a survey focusing on the changing roles for secretarial staff was conducted in Australia by Heather Maguire. This survey used members of the respective administrative professional associations in Australia and New Zealand; Australian Institute of Office Professionals (AIOP) and the then New Zealand Society of Executive Secretaries, now the Association of Administrative Professionals New Zealand Inc (AAPNZ). The results of this research were preseented at a conference in Australia in 1996, in a paper titled; "Just a Sec! A comparative study of the changing role of secretarial staff in Australia and New Zealand".

It is interesting to note that internationally there has been little research of the administrative profession. In fact in a six year search I retrieved only about 10 academic papers. There has been some research undertaken over the last five years, but it has been based primarily in Australia, United States and the United Kingdom. These papers have real interest and are worthy of reading. However they do not specifically apply to New Zealand and focus on secretaries, not the wider generic role of the administrative professional. In Australia in 2008, a PhD thesis titled "Women, work and learning" by Dr Jillian Cavanagh was completed, researching 'auxiliary workers' (administrative professionals) within legal offices in Queensland.

In 2003 I presented a paper at the 5th International Secretarial Summit in London titled "Value ourselves so others value us". Writing this paper and at the same time developing AAPNZ's Certification process as National President, contributed to my realisation that there was little research into administrative professionals who are a valuable part of the workforce and economy. This prompted me starting my research and to a presentation on the initial results in 2009, at the 7th International Office Professionals Summit in Trinidad & Tobago.

I submitted my thesis in May 2010 and was informed in July that after achieving a B+ for my thesis I would be awarded my Masters in Education with Merit, in December. The contribution of AAPNZ members to the survey and those non-members, who participated through the snowball survey, was invaluable. In particular those in the research focus groups who were crucial to gathering the rich deep qualitative data required in my thesis. Without the quality of the voices of those who responded to the survey and the depth of the stories from the participants in the focus groups, the validity of the data gathered would have been reduced.

This research was supported by AAPNZ through providing me with access to the members for the survey and by awarding me the 2009 Doreen Smart $1,000 Scholarship. AAPNZ was the environment in which the whole idea for undertaking this research was developed and AAPNZ provided support to me during the research and writing of my thesis.

I hope that those who wish to read this document get value from doing so and I look forward to hearing comments and discussion on the reported results, access 

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